By Dara Colwell, AlterNet. Posted March 26, 2009.
We can make over 25,000 things with it. Farmers love it. Environmentalists love it. You can’t get high from it. So why is it still illegal?
While Uncle Sam’s scramble for new revenue sources has recently kicked up the marijuana debate — to legalize and tax, or not? — hemp’s feasibility as a stimulus plan has received less airtime.
But with a North American market that exceeds $300 million in annual retail sales and continued rising demand, industrial hemp could generate thousands of sustainable new jobs, helping America to get back on track.
“We’re in the midst of a dark economic transition, but I believe hemp is an important facet and has tremendous economic potential,” says Patrick Goggin, a board member on the California Council for Vote Hemp, the nation’s leading industrial hemp-farming advocacy group. “Economically and environmentally, industrial hemp is an important part of the sustainability pie.”
With 25,000 known applications from paper, clothing and food products — which, according to an article in the Wall Street Journal this January, is the fastest growing new food category in North America — to construction and automotive materials, hemp could be just the crop to jump-start America’s green economy.
But growing hemp remains illegal in the U.S. The Drug Enforcement Administration has lumped the low-THC plant together with its psychoactive cousin, marijuana, making America the planet’s only industrialized nation to ban hemp production. We can import it from Canada, which legalized it in 1997. But we can’t grow it.
“It’s a missed opportunity,” says Goggin, who campaigned for California farmers to grow industrial hemp two years ago, although the bill was vetoed by Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, citing the measure conflicted with federal law.
Considering California’s position as an agricultural giant — agriculture nets $36.6 billion dollars a year, according to the California Department of Food and Agriculture — Goggin’s assessment is an understatement. Especially if extended nationwide.
“Jobs require capital investment, which isn’t easy to come by at the moment, and we need hemp-processing facilities, because the infrastructure here went to seed. But this is a profitable crop, and the California farming community supports it.”
Just how profitable? According to Chris Conrad, a respected authority on cannabis and industrial hemp and who authored Hemp for Health and Hemp, Lifeline to the Future, the industry would be regionally sustainable, reviving the local economy wherever it was grown.
“Hemp will create jobs in some of the hardest-hit sectors of the country — rural agriculture, equipment manufacturing, transportable processing equipment and crews — and the products could serve and develop the same community where the hemp is farmed: building ecological new homes, producing value-added and finished products, marketing and so forth,” he writes in an e-mail from Amsterdam, where he is doing research. “Add to that all the secondary jobs — restaurants, health care, food products, community-support networks, schools, etc., that will serve the workers. The Midwestern U.S. and the more remote parts of California and other states would see a surge of income, growth, jobs and consumer goods.”
In America, industrial hemp has long been associated with marijuana, although the plants are different breeds of Cannabis sativa, just as poodles and Irish setters are different breeds of dog.
While hemp contains minute levels of THC, the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana (compare 0.3 percent or less in Canadian industrial hemp versus 3-20 percent for medical marijuana), to get high you’d have to smoke a joint the size of a telephone pole.
Still, the historical hysteria caused by federal anti-marijuana campaigns of the 1930s, which warned that marijuana caused insanity, lust, addiction, violence and crime, have had a long-term impact on its distant relative.
Doomed by the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937, which in effect criminalized cannabis and levied high taxes on medical marijuana and industrial hemp, hemp cultivation wasn’t technically disallowed.
However, the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, the DEA’s predecessor, said its agents couldn’t differentiate between industrial hemp and marijuana, a stance the DEA maintains today, so fewer farmers were willing to grow it. The exception came during World War II, when the armed forces experienced a severe fiber shortage and the government launched an aggressive campaign to grow hemp.
But after the war, hemp production faded away, and the last legal crop was harvested in 1957. Marijuana’s propaganda-fuelled history, one filled with lurid stories, one-sided information, slander and corporate profiteerism, is too lengthy to address here, but hemp has never managed to remain unscathed.
Considering today’s economic crisis and the combined threats of peak oil and global warming, there is increasing pressure to move toward sustainable resources before everything goes up in smoke. If there was any time to revisit hemp, it’s now.
“Industrial hemp is the best gift a farmer could have. It’s the ideal alternative crop,” says Gale Glenn, on the board of the North American Industrial Hemp Council. Glenn, now retired, owned and managed a 300-acre Kentucky farm producing burley tobacco, and she immediately launches into hemp’s benefits: It’s environmentally friendly, requiring no pesticides or herbicides, it’s the perfect rotation crop because it detoxifies and regenerates the soil, and it’s low labor.
“You just plant the seed, close the farm gate and four months later, cut it and bale it,” she says.
And there’s more. As a food, hemp is rich in essential omega-3 fatty acids; the plant’s cellulose level, roughly three times that of wood, creates paper that yields four times as much pulp as trees; hemp is an ideal raw material for plant-based plastics, used to make everything from diapers to dashboards.
In fact, Germany’s DaimlerChrysler Corp. has equipped its Mercedes-Benz C-class vehicles with natural-fiber-reinforced materials, including hemp, for years. Even Henry Ford himself manufactured a car from hemp-based plastic in 1941, archival footage of which can be found on YouTube, and the car ran on clean-burning hemp-based ethanol fuel.
This leads to the most compelling argument for hemp: fuel. Hemp seeds are ideal for making ethanol, the cleanest-burning liquid bio-alternative to gasoline, and when grown as an energy crop, hemp actually offsets carbon emissions because it absorbs more carbon dioxide than any other plant.
As the world rapidly depletes its reserves of petroleum, America needs to create a renewable, homegrown energy source to become energy independent. Luckily, unlike petrol, hemp is renewable, unless we run out of soil.
“As a farmer, it’s frustrating not being able to grow this incredible crop,” says Glenn. But if Glenn did try to grow it, the American government would consider her a felon guilty of trafficking, and she would face a fine of up to $4 million and a prison sentence of 5 to 40 years. Because no matter how low its THC content, hemp is still considered a Schedule I substance, grouped alongside heroin.
It’s exactly this war-on-drugs logic that has kept serious discussion of hemp off the table.
“I’ve met with senators over the last 13 years, and I’ve been to the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) four times, and I’m always amazed by what they tell us — that industrial hemp is by far one of the most superior fibers known to man, but since it’s a green plant with a five-point leaf, you’ll never grow it in America,” says Bud Sholts chairman of the the North American Industrial Hemp Council and former economist for Wisconsin’s State Department of Agriculture.
Sholts’ research into sustainable agriculture convinced him of industrial hemp’s value, and he has been lobbying for it ever since. “We’re overlooking something huge.”
Luckily, farmers are practical folk whose pragmatism ensures their survival, and they have championed industrial hemp, which they see as a potential economic boon, by pushing for it through their state legislatures, where it has become a bipartisan issue.
To date, 28 states have introduced hemp legislation, including Arkansas, California, Hawaii, Illinois, Kentucky, Minnesota, Maryland, North Dakota, New Mexico, Virgina, Vermont and West Virginia. Fifteen have passed it, and seven have legalized hemp production, according to Vote Hemp.
Yet in cases like North Dakota, the DEA still insists that federal law trumps the state’s and farmers need a DEA-granted license before growing. This is exactly what happened to David Monson and Wayne Hauge, two North Dakota farmers given state permission to grow but who have been waiting a while for their federal licenses — in Monson’s case, since 1997.
“Here we are in 2009, and it seems like we’re still taking baby steps. We’re a little closer, but I’m not making any predictions,” says Monson, who also happens to be a Republican state representative.
Monson lives only 20 miles from the Canadian border, where fields of profitable industrial hemp have been growing since 1997, and he believes it’s a simple case of “if they can grow it, why can’t we?”
“The profit potential is there. Practically and economically, it makes sense to raise it,” says Monson. “I truly believe as a farmer that hemp is good for farmers, it’s good for the environment and it’s good for state of North Dakota. And for that matter the whole nation.”
As the law currently stands, to legalize hemp production, all the DEA has to do is remove hemp from its Schedule I drug list, a process that does not require a congressional vote.
Now that the Obama administration has announced an end to medical marijuana raids, hemp advocates are hopeful the move could open the door for hemp, because the president voted for a hemp bill while he was in the Illinois legislature.
The DEA follows the government’s lead, and the government, which does not want to be seen as being soft on drugs, has been notoriously skittish tackling drug policy reform. If Obama told the DEA to move forward aggressively and issue all pending research, commercial and agronomic licenses, farmers like Monson could grow hemp tomorrow.
“Politically, I liken the situation to pulling bricks out of a dam,” says Vote Hemp’s Goggin. “There are now so many leaks, the dam’s getting ready to burst. We’re working hard for a shift in policy, but at the moment, Washington doesn’t consider this a top issue.”
While industrial-hemp advocates are becoming hopeful that policy change is in the winds, they caution that the industry still requires a massive, coordinated effort to develop.
“I’m hesitant overselling hemp and touting it like the magic beans that will save the economy or the planet,” says Tom Murphy, national outreach coordinator for Vote Hemp. “Industrial hemp is an answer but not the answer. It has a great deal of potential — but it doesn’t have any potential if you can’t grow it.”
Conrad, who believes in American ingenuity to find creative solutions using hemp, says, “Only the scourge of prohibitionism can see to it that our economy and environment rot into sewage. It is up to the good, hard-working and honest people to end cannabis prohibition and start the process of rebuilding the planet and our global and regional economies.” Source.
March 15th, 2009 – Source
Guide Note – Most states that have passed laws legalizing marijuana for medical use have some type of registration program and require patients and caregivers to obtain a medical marijuana card. This page includes a state-by-state guide on how to register and obtain a card.
* As of March 2009, 14 states have passed laws legalizing marijuana for medical use. These states include Alaska, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont and Washington. Many of these states require patients intending to use marijuana for medical use to register first–but what exactly required depends on the state. If you are considering talking to your doctor about using marijuana for your medical condition, then you will want to find out what is required to register in your state before your visit as medical documentation in some form is necessary in every state.
o NOTE: This page is provided for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as recommendation by Mahalo for any sort of illegal or unauthorized drug use. Although state regulations may rule otherwise, using marijuana for any purposes– including medical– is still illegal under federal law.
* In Alaska, you must obtain a Registry Identification Card for Medical Use of Marijuana if you are a patient or a caregiver. To do this, you must submit the following items:
1. A completed Marijuana Application Packet1
2. A nonrefundable fee of $25.00 ($20.00 for a renewal)
3. A copy of the patient’s Alaska State Driver’s License or Identification Card.
4. A copy of all caregivers’ Alaska State Driver’s License or Identification Card.
5. A signed statement from the patient’s physician that addresses the patient’s condition, states that the physician personally examined the patient and how the physician came to the conclusion that medical marijuana was justified.2
6. Paperwork should be sent to Alaska Bureau of Vital Statistics Marijuana Registry; P.O. Box 110699; Juneau, AK 99811-0699.1
7. If the patient is a minor, an original (not photocopied) statement from the minor’s parent or legal guardian that gives consent.
* Application, documents and fee should be sent to Alaska Bureau of Vital Statistics Marijuana Registry; P.O. Box 110699; Juneau, AK 99811-0699.1 In order to obtain a card as a caregiver, you must be at least 21 years old, not currently on parole or probation, and never have been convicted of a felony offense under AS 11.71 or AS 11.73. If your application is denied, you will not be allowed to resubmit it for six months.3
* A to Z Listing of Medical Marijuana County Program Business Hours
* The California Medical Marijuana Program is an optional program that is regulated on the county level, not the state level.4 As of November 2008, all but a handful of counties had implemented a medical marijuana program. Counties that were not participating include Colusa, Madera, Mariposa, Modoc, Mono, Nevada, San Bernadino, San Diego, Solano, Sutter and Ventura. Alpine, Fresno, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Siskiyou and Stanislaus counties were in the process of implementing a program, so make sure to check in with your local officials on the current status in your county before proceeding with an application.5
1. To register, you will need to contact your county. A complete listing of each county’s medical marijuana program is listed on the California Department of Public Health website.6
2. You will need to fill out an application.7
3. You will also need documentation of the patient’s medical records.8
4. The cost for registering includes a $66.00 state fee plus any additional county fees.9
* In Colorado, anyone who wishes to possess marijuana for medical use must obtain a Medical Marijuana Registry identification card from the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment.10 Cards can be obtained by submitting the following to the state:
1. A completed New/Renewal Application for Identification Card.11
2. A copy of your Colorado driver’s license or ID card.11
3. A non-refundable $90 application fee (check or money order made out to CDPHE).11
4. The physician certification form completed and signed by a doctor licensed to work in Colorado.11
* Items should be sent to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment Medical Marijuana Registry; HSVRD-MMP-A1; 4300 Cherry Creek Drive South; Denver, Colorado 80246-1530. There is a different application form for patients under 18.12 For more information, you can contact the registry by calling (303) 692-2184.11
* In Hawaii, patients do need a medical marijuana card, and must register with the Narcotics Enforcement Division of the Department of Public Safety.13 To do this, the patient must:
1. Ask their doctor to fill out a written certification form from the Department of Public Safety.
Forms must be filled out in the doctor’s office and cannot be taken home.14
2. A copy of the form can be found at Medical Marijuana of Hawaii: Written Certification / Registry Identification Forms for the Medical Use of Marijuana WARNING: PDF File 14
3. Forms can also be obtained by contacting the Department of Public Safety at (808) 837-8470.15
2. The form must be sent with a copy of the patient’s and the patient’s primary caregiver’s current Hawaii driver’s licenses, Hawaii state identification cards or Passports.15
3. Payment can be in the form of a personal, certified, or cashier’s check or money order and should be made out to the “Narcotics Enforcement Division.”15
4. Forms should be sent to the following address: Narcotics Enforcement Division; 3375 Koapaka Street, Suite D-100; Honolulu, Hawaii 96819.15
* In Maine, there is no official registration program or card necessary. Instead, a person may possess a “usable amount of marijuana for medical reasons” if they have written documentation or an authenticated copy of their medical records.16 The documentation or records must show:
1. The person has been diagnosed with one of the conditions approved under Maine law.16
2. The physician mentioned on the documentation or records has a “bona fide physician-patient relationship with the person.”16
* Caregivers may lawfully possess marijuana if they are determined to be a “designated caregiver” under the law and is possessing it as part of their duties as designated caregiver.17
* In Maryland, there is no official registration program. Instead, Maryland law allows a defendant to use “medical necessity” as a defense for a marijuana possession charge, providing that they possess less than one ounce. The laws do not address growing marijuana, even if it is for medical use.18 If successful, the maximum penalty for the charge is a $100 fine.19
* Michigan approved a medical marijuana program in November 2008. It is scheduled to be operational on April 4, 2009. For more information, check out Michgan.gov’s Department of Community Health page on the Michigan Medical Marihuana Program.20
* In Montana, patients and caregivers must register with the the Quality Assurance Division of the Department of Public Health and Human Services.21 To register, the patient or caregiver must:
1. Complete the application form. You must have a valid Montana driver’s license or state identification card.22
2. Provide written certification from a doctor that the patient is a qualifying patient.23 The Department of Public Health and Human Services provides a form for this certification.24
3. Send the application, written certification and a $50 application fee to Department of Public Health and Human Services / Quality Assurance Division; Licensure Bureau; PO Box 202953; Helena, MT 59620-2953.23
* In order to possess marijuana for medical purposes in Nevada, you must first register with the Nevada State Health Division and obtain a registry identification card. To obtain an application for the card, you must send a written request to Nevada State Health Division; 1000 E William Street; Suite 209; Carson City, Nevada 89701.
1. Include the address where the application should be sent on the request.
2. If you have a caregiver, request a caregiver packet.
3. If the application is for a minor, request a minor release packet.
4. An application fee of $50 must be included with the request. Make checks or money orders out to the Nevada State Health Division.25
* You can also contact the Nevada State Health Division by calling (775) 687-7594 or faxing (775) 687-7595.25 There will be an additional $150 registration fee that must accompany the application.26
* In order to use marijuana for medical purposes in New Mexico, the following items must be submitted to the Department of Health:
1. A letter from the patient’s doctor or a “Medical Provider Certification for Eligibility” form.27
2. A copy of the patient’s New Mexico driver’s license, state ID card or passport.28
3. Participant application.29
4. Release of information.30
5. A parental consent form, if the patient is a minor.31
* You can also obtain forms by calling (505) 827-2321. Once completed, forms should be mailed to Department of Health; 1190 St. Francis Drive; Suite S1203; Santa Fe, NM 87502. They can also be faxed to (505) 476-3637. Your application will be approved or denied within 30 days.32 If you want to grow marijuana for your own personal (medical) use, you will need to complete a separate application.33
* The Oregon Medical Marijuana Program is a registry program that is part of the Oregon Department of Human Services Public Health Division. When registering, patients will need to indicate a caregiver and grow site. Doing so on the application protects them from prosecution under Oregon law.34 Here is how you can register with the Oregon Medical Marijuana Program:
Complete the application.35 Complete instructions for filling out the application are found online.36
2. Provide a copy of your Oregon photo ID card, Oregon driver’s license, or a current photo ID and a copy of your Oregon voter’s registration card.37
3. Listing a primary caregiver is optional if the patient is over 18.37
4. You or your caregiver may choose to grow marijuana or you may choose a third party to grow the marijuana for you.37
1. Grow sites cannot be P.O. boxes.
2. Growers are subject to a criminal history check for felony convictions.
3. You must provide a copy of the person’s current Oregon photo ID.37
5. Include a statement from your attending physician. The form for this statement is available online.38
6. If the patient is a minor, attach a declaration from the person responsible for the minor. The form for this statement is available online.39
* Applications should be sent to DHS/OMMP; PO BOX 14450; Portland, OR 97293-0450. You can contact the Oregon Department of Human Services by calling (971) 673-1234.35
* In Rhode Island, the Department of Health will issue a registry identification card to patients and primary caregivers provided they submit the following information:
1. From a medical doctor that the patient has a relationship with, written certification which states that:
1. The patient has a debilitating condition and what specifically that condition is.
2. The doctor believes that the benefits outweigh the risks to the patient’s health.
2. A non-refundable application fee of $75 for each patient or primary caregiver.
3. A completed application40
4. Name, address, and date of birth of each primary caregiver for the patient (if any). Only two primary caregivers can be named for each qualifying patient. A caregiver can have no more than five patients in using medical marijuana.41
5. Background checks for each caregiver. This can be obtained by contacting the Attorney General’s Office at (401) 274-4400.40
6. If the patient is a minor, a completed minor form.40
* Applications should be sent to State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations; Department of Health – Medical Marijuana Program; Office of Health Professionals Regulation, Room 104; 3 Capitol Hill, Providence, RI 02908-5097.40
* In Vermont, patients who wish to use marijuana for medical purposes must register with the Department of Public Safety. This is done by doing the following:
1. Complete the application.42 Part of the application must be completed by your physician. You can also find this portion of the application online.43
2. Have your application (once completed) notarized.44
3. Provide a digital photograph of yourself. The digital photo can be taken with your own camera or by a studio that takes passport photographs. Photographs should be included as a .jpg on a floppy disk or CD that is labeled with your name and date of birth.42
4. Include a non-refundable $50 application fee.44
* Applications should be sent to Marijuana Registry; Department of Public Safety; 103 South Main Street; Waterbury, Vermont 05671. You can contact the registry by calling (802) 241-5115.42 Caregivers must do the same things, but have a different application they must fill out.45
* According to Washington State Department of Health, people who qualify under the law may posses a 60-day supply of marijuana as long as they have a written recommendation from their doctor.46 To qualify, you must:
1. Be a patient of a doctor licensed (not just practicing) in Washington.
2. Have been advised of the risks and benefits of using marijuana medically.
3. Be a resident of Washington when diagnosed.
4. Be able to prove your identity with a Washington driver’s license or ID card.
5. Have a formal statement from your doctor or a copy of medical records that shows a diagnosis of a condition that is approved under Washington law.47
* Once you have registered and obtained a medical marijuana card in your state, you may want to know how to obtain marijuana for medical use. For information on this topic, check out Mahalo’s how to get medical marijuana.
References for How to Get a Medical Marijuana Card
1. ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Alaska Division of Public Health: Marijuana Application Packet WARNING: PDF File
2. ↑ Americans for Safe Access: Becoming a Patient in Alaska – Written Certification Must be Provided to Prove Eligibility
3. ↑ Alaska Division of Public Health: Marijuana Registry
4. ↑ California Department of Public Health: Medical Marijuana Program
5. ↑ California Department of Public Health: Medical Marijuana Program Implementation Schedule WARNING: PDF File
6. ↑ California Department of Public Health: A to Z Listing of Medical Marijuana County Programs
7. ↑ California Department of Public Health: Medical Marijuana Program Application / Renewal Form WARNING: PDF File
8. ↑ California Department of Public Health: Written Documentation of Patient’s Medical Records WARNING: PDF File
9. ↑ California Department of Public Health: Web Fact Sheet WARNING: PDF File
10. ↑ Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment: Medical Marijuana in Colorado
11. ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment: New/Renewal Applications and Instructions for patients over age 18 WARNING: PDF File
12. ↑ Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment: New/Renewal Applications and Instructions for patients under age 18 WARNING: PDF File
13. ↑ State of Hawai’i Department of Public Safety: Narcotics Enforcement Division
14. ↑ 14.0 14.1 Medical Marijuana of Hawaii: Written Certification / Registry Identification Forms for the Medical Use of Marijuana WARNING: PDF File
15. ↑ 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 State of Hawai’i Department of Public Safety: Physician’s Guideline for Completing Hawaii’s Written Certification / Registry Identification Forms for the Medical Use of Marijuana WARNING: PDF File
16. ↑ 16.0 16.1 16.2 Maine Office of the Revisor of Statutes: Title 22, Section 2383-B
17. ↑ Americans for Safe Access: Becoming a Patient in Maine
18. ↑ Americans for Safe Access: Becoming a Patient in Maryland
19. ↑ NORML: Active State Medical Marijuana Programs – Maryland
20. ↑ Michigan.gov MDCH: Michigan Medical Marihuana Program
21. ↑ Department of Public Health & Human Services: Montana Medical Marijuana Program
22. ↑ Department of Public Health & Human Services: New Application Form WARNING: PDF File
23. ↑ 23.0 23.1 Department of Public Health & Human Services: Frequently Asked Questions WARNING: PDF File
24. ↑ Department of Public Health & Human Services: Attending Physician’s Statement-new Application WARNING: PDF File
25. ↑ 25.0 25.1 Nevada State Health Division: Medical Marijuana
26. ↑ Americans for Safe Access: Becoming a Patient in Nevada
27. ↑ New Mexico Department of Health: Medical Provider Certification for Patient Eligibility WARNING: PDF File
28. ↑ Qualified Participant Application Checklist for Adults WARNING: PDF File
29. ↑ New Mexico Department of Health: Medical Cannabis Program Participant Application WARNING: PDF File
30. ↑ New Mexico Department of Health: Participant Consent to Release Medical Information to Primary Caregiver WARNING: PDF File
31. ↑ New Mexico Department of Health: Qualified Minor Parental Consent Form WARNING: PDF File
32. ↑ New Mexico Department of Health: Medical Marijuana Information
33. ↑ New Mexico Department of Health: Application Requirements for Licensure of Qualified Patients to Produce Cannabis Plants for Personal Use Only
34. ↑ Oregon.gov: Basic Facts WARNING: PDF File
35. ↑ 35.0 35.1 Oregon.gov: Application WARNING: PDF File
36. ↑ Oregon.gov: Application Instructions WARNING: PDF File
37. ↑ 37.0 37.1 37.2 37.3 Oregon.gov: Application Instructions
38. ↑ Oregon.gov: Attending Physician’s Statement WARNING: PDF File
39. ↑ Oregon.gov: Declaration of Person Responsible for a Minor WARNING: PDF File
40. ↑ 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 Rhode Island Department of Health: Instructions and Information for Registration in the RI Medical Marijuana Program WARNING: PDF File
41. ↑ Rhode Island Department of Health: Rules and Regulations Related to the Medical Marijuana Program WARNING: PDF File
42. ↑ 42.0 42.1 42.2 Vermont Criminal Information Center: Registered Patient Application Form WARNING: PDF File
43. ↑ Vermont Criminal Information Center: Physician’s Medical Verification Form WARNING: PDF File
44. ↑ 44.0 44.1 Vermont Criminal Information Center: Vermont Marijuana Registry Information
45. ↑ Vermont Criminal Information Center: Registered Caregiver Application Form WARNING: PDF File
46. ↑ Washington State Department of Health: Medical Marijuana FAQs
47. ↑ Americans for Safe Access: Becoming a Patient in Washington